Summer 1914: War Enthusiasm, Real and Imaginary 

Among Europe’s lower orders in general, there was also talk of “discontent,” “angry grumbling,” and “critical murmurs” with respect to the “bosses” who were considered to be responsible for the war. Workers everywhere asked themselves how their families would survive on the meagre soldier’s pay that would replace their wages for an indefinite period of time. In many cities, for example in London, Frankfurt, and Hamburg, whatever frivolity may have been displayed during the first hours and days soon gave way to a serious and even sombre mood, particularly in working-class districts such as London’s East End and the Berlin district of Moabit. Germany’s “mass of workers and employees” was reported to remain “very reserved toward the warlike atmosphere.”

Source: Summer 1914: War Enthusiasm, Real and Imaginary –

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